Scientific Articles

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The following citations illustrate the clinical and technical concerns related to current laryngoscope practice. The Yeescope is designed to address most of the issues identified in a practical, cost effective manner.


  • “How should we process and store laryngoscope blades?” Joint Commission Ambulatory Health Care Manual (CAMAC), New Standards FAQs, October 24, 2011.
  • Medical Device Alert – Reusable laryngoscope handles. MHRA Ref: MDA/2011/0096, 27 Sept. 2011.
  • Telang R, Patel V, Ranganathan P, et al. Decontamination of laryngoscope blades: Is our practice adequate? J Postgrad Med 2010; 56(4): 257-261.
  • Williams D, Dengley N, Jones N, et al. Contamination of laryngoscope handles. J Hosp Infect 2010; 74(2): 123-128.
  • Call TR, Auerbach FJ, Riddell SW, et al. Nosocomial contamination of laryngoscope handles: changing current guidelines. Anesth Analg 2009; 104(2): 479-483.
  • Muscarella LF. Reassessment of the risk of healthcare-acquired infection during rigid laryngoscopy. J Hosp Infect 2008; 68(2): 101-107.
  • Qureshi T, Barbut F, Pernet P, et al. Laryngoscope handles in a medical intensive care unit: the level of bacterial and occult blood contamination. J. Hosp Infect 2008; 68(1): 94-95.
  • Bannon L, et al. Repeat autoclaving does not remove protein deposits from the classic laryngeal mask airway. Europ J Anaesthes 2005; 22(7): 515-517.
  • Yee KF. The case for single-use laryngoscopes. Poster 0923, 13th World Congress of Anesthesiologists, Paris, April 2004.
  • Hirsh N, et al. Lymphocyte contamination of laryngoscope blades: a possible vector for transmission of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. Anesthesia 2004; 60: 664-667.
  • Pidduck D. Cross infection and the laryngoscope. Br J Perioper Nurs 2002; 12(5):170-175.
  • McNeil B. Cross-contamination and the laryngoscope. Br J Perioper Nurs 2002; 12(10): 350.
  • Tordoff SG, Scott S. Blood contamination of the laryngeal mask and laryngoscopes: What do we tell our patients? Anesthesia 2002; 57(5): 505-506.
  • Miller DM. Youkhana I, Karunaratne WU, et al. Presence of protein deposits on “cleaned” re-usable anaesthetic equipment. Anaesthesia 2001; 56:1069-0172.
  • Simmons SA. Laryngoscope handles: a potential for infection. J Am Assoc Nurse Anesth 2000; 68:233-236.
  • Beamer JER, Cox RA. MRSA contamination of a laryngoscope blade: a potential vector for cross-infection. Anaesthesia 1999; 54:1010-1011.
  • Esler MD, Baines LC, Wilkinson DJ, et al. Decontamination of laryngoscopes: a survey of national practice. Anaesthesia 1999; 54:582-598.
  • Balin MS, McCluskey A, Maxwell S, et al. Contamination of laryngoscopes. Anaesthesia 1999; 54: 1115-1116.
  • Phillips RA, Monaghan WP. Incidence of visible and occult blood on laryngoscope blades and handles. J Am Assoc Nurse Anaesth 1997; 65:241-246.
  • Foweraker JE. The laryngoscope as a potential source of cross-infection. J Hosp Infect 1995; 29:315-316.
  • Tait AR, Tuttle DB. Preventing preoperative transmission of infection: a survey of anesthesiology practice. Anesth Analg 1995; 80:764-769.
  • Conroy TF. Laryngoscope handle contamination. Anesthesiology 1995; 83(2):428.
  • Abramson AL, Gilbirto E, Mullouly V, et al. Microbial adherence to and disinfection of laryngoscopes used in office practice. Laryngoscope 1993; 103:503-508.


  • Nishiyama T. Changes in the light intensity of the fibreoptic laryngoscope blade by steam sterilization. International Anesthesia Research Society 2007; 104:4.
  • Fernandez-Torres B, Calle-Cruz E, Gutierrez-Guillen A, et al. Usefulness and reliability of disposable laryngoscopes. Rev Esp Anesthesiol Reanim 2005; 53(10):676-677.
  • Yee KF. Decontamination issues and perceived reliability of the laryngoscope – A clinician’s perspective. Anaesth Intensive Care 2003; 31:661-665.
  • Bucx MJL, de Gast HM, Veldhuis J, et al. The effect of mechanical cleaning and thermal disinfection on light intensity provided by fibrelight MacIntosh laryngoscopes. Anesthesia 2003; 58:461-465.
  • Twigg SJL, McCormack B, Cook TM. Ramdomized evaluation of the performance of single-use laryngoscopes in simulated easy and difficult intubation. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2003; 90:8-13.


  • Cullen MM, Trail A, Robinson M, et al. Serratia Marcescena outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit prompting review of decontamination of laryngoscopes. J Hosp Infect 2005; 59(1):68-70.
  • McDonald J. Audit of use of size 3 Yeescope in a paediatric anaesthesia practice. Anesthesia and intensive care 2007;35:147.
  • Neal TJ, Hughes CR, Rothburn MM, et al. The neonatal laryngoscope as a source of cross-infection. J Hosp infect 1995; 30:315-317.

Financial Considerations

  • Vasquez C. Cost of reprocessing reusable laryngoscopes. Glendale Adventist Hospital Report 2012.
  • Whitener D. The cost of reusable vs. single-use laryngoscopes. Southeast Health Report 2012.



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